responding to two classmates’ discussions on different scientific topics in a substantive and constructive manner. the vital role of amphibians in producing analgesics and their potential vulnerability to a fungal pathogen that could impact both their respiratory function and human access to painkillers.

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responding to two classmates’ discussions on different scientific topics in a substantive and constructive manner. the vital role of amphibians in producing analgesics and their potential vulnerability to a fungal pathogen that could impact both their respiratory function and human access to painkillers.

You will respond to two different classmate with a substantive comment in a minimum 100, maximum 150 words, moving the science discussion forward in an area of interest after reading your classmate’s main discussion. Again, you should provide student original writing, paraphrasing from credible academic sources, cite your source for this post with parenthetical in-text citations, and provide full end reference information in APA 7th Edition format.
Reply to this:
1. An American greenhouse produce farming company, BrightFarms has announced that they are issuing a voluntary recall of their spinach products today on January 19, 2024. Their two spinach containing products are sold as either exclusively spinach or in a 50/50 combination with spring mix. The recall was issued due to the potential contamination of the spinach with Listeria monocytogenes. BrightFarms has also issued a voluntary recall of four other non-spinach containing products due to the potential for cross-contamination at one of their facilities in Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania. The Listeria monocytogenes contamination occurred at one of its supplier farms, Element Farms located in Pompton Plains, New Jersey. The products included in the recall were sold in these seven states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia. Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive bacterium. It is considered to be one of the deadliest foodborne pathogens in the United States, with the population at the highest risk of severe illness being pregnant women, newborns, elderly and immunocompromised people. Listeria monocytogenes can cause intestinal illness which is the most common and presents symptoms within 24 hours or in rare but severe cases it can cause invasive illness with symptoms presenting within two weeks of ingestion. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, symptoms of infection include: fever, headache, flu-like symptoms, stiff neck, seizures, confusion, diarrhea and vomiting (CDC, 2023). As of the time of publication of the recall notice, no illnesses had been reported. BrightFarms has temporarily suspended distribution of Element Farms grown spinach (DeLetter, 2024). Of note, despite the recall on four of its suspected cross-contamination products, there hasn’t been any positive tests for Listeria monocytogenes resulted for those products. Consumers who have bought the products included in the recall should not eat them and discard them immediately. BrightFarms and its retailers will offer a full refund to purchasers with either a photo of the product or receipt of purchase.
Word count = 321
References
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2023, November 20). Listeria (listeriosis). CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/listeria/index.html#print
DeLetter, E. (2024, January 19). Brightfarms recall: Spinach, salad kits sold in 7 states recalled over listeria risk. USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/food/2024/01/19/brightfarms-recall-spinach-salad/72279120007/
2. Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans also identified as Bsal. (Gray.M,et.al 2023) B.salamandrivorans is a fungal pathogen predominantly found on amphibians. (Gray.M,et.al 2023) This pathogen is said to be still spreading throughout Europe. There have been fears of it spreading to the U.S. via international trade. (Gray.M,et.al 2023) The risk of B.salamandrivorans has been studied by performing dose experiments on North American species from 10 different families. (Gray.M,et.al 2023) Based upon this study it has been discovered that Bsal has caused infection in 74% and morality in 35% of species. (Gray.M,et.al 2023) Who knew that amphibians were so vital to humans? So vital, that amphibians are being held at a high number for trade. (Gray.M,et.al 2023) In order to receive amphibians that are not infected they are willing to pay 75% more for them. (Gray.M,et.al 2023) Amphibians have the alien ability to regenerate limbs. (Gray.M,et.al 2023) Amphibians are vital to humans because they can exude analgesics or painkillers. (Gray.M,et.al 2023) Peptides from the skin of amphibians have the power to inactivate some viruses that are a detriment, HIV being one of them. (Gray.M,et.al 2023) B.salamandrivorans is responsible for killing natures natural mosquito terminator. (Gray.M,et.al 2023) It is understood that a decline could occur in the Appalachian Mountains and the Pacific Northwest. (Gray.M,et.al 2023) Many amphibians are known to breathe through their skin because they are lungless. (Gray.M,et.al 2023) If Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans continues to invade and spread amongst their skin, then this can inevitably affect their ability to respire. If their skin is affected, then our painkillers are affected as well. (Gray.M,et.al 2023) W/C:304 References: Matthew J. Gray, Edward Davis Carter, Jonah Piovia-Scott, J. Patrick W. Cusaac, Anna C. Peterson, Ross D. Whetstone, Andreas Hertz, Aura Y. Muniz-Torres, Molly C. Bletz, Douglas C. Woodhams, John M. Romansic, William B. Sutton, Wesley Sheley, Allan Pessier, Catherine D. McCusker, Mark Q. Wilber, Debra L. Miller. Broad host susceptibility of North American amphibian species to Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans suggests high invasion potential and biodiversity risk. Nature Communications, 2023; 14 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-023-38979-4 University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture. (2023, June 14). Researchers find high risk to amphibians if fungal pathogen invades North America. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 18, 2024 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2023/06/230614220543.htm

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